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Since time immemorial, politics has had a profound impact on education. With new leaders and policies, education is often manipulated to endorse partisan ideologies and beliefs. With the rise of such a trend in India, Delhi University can also now be seen grappling with similar accusations of advocating Hindutva fascism instead of advocating secular and unbiased doctrines. Being one of the top institutions of the nation, it must not fall under the grip of propaganda. However, recent incidents have proved otherwise. Actions that may cause communal disharmony and unrest among the students can be seen to be proactively supported and promoted. Certain cases have caught the eye of national newspapers and have even resulted in students actively protesting against the administration. In these shambolic times, the threat to the spirit of democracy and secularism in the institution becomes highly contentious.
Since the grand victory of the current government in the 2014 elections, it has been accused of saffronising education. Saffronisation is a term that refers to the policies of the government that implement Hindu nationalist propaganda. Saffronisation of education has included cases of changes in the syllabus for school students, for example, deletion of chapters on Mughal courts, poems by Faiz Ahmed Faiz, a poem on Dalit movement etc. Omission of chapters on Islamic lands from class 11th History textbooks and removal of chapters on Mughal administration from class 12th History textbooks during the COVID-19 pandemic did raise some eyes for being islamophobic in nature.(1) A recent controversy that was highly publicised was when the class 12th CBSE sociology paper had a question on Gujarat riots asking which government was responsible for the infamous massacre. Later the Board issued an apology for the same despite it being a part of the syllabus and a fair question. The very attempt to alter the facts and hide the truth proves the textbook manipulation taken up by the government. (2)
Image credits- EconomicTimes.indiatimes.com In April 2022, Union Home Minister Amit Shah had said that, “Hindi should be seen as an alternative to English and not local languages. People belonging to different states should
communicate in Hindi and not English”. The statement met with severe criticism from the Southern and the North-eastern states of the nation. The opposition remarked that the people of the nation do not need to learn a language to prove their nationality. Some questioned the choice of Hindi over other regional languages present in the country. Every now and then, the government seeks to push Hindi and Sanskrit over the people rather than acknowledging and celebrating the diverse languages existing. From silently changing the milestones from English to Hindi in Tamil Nadu to making the non hindi students appear for an exam, the push for Hindi has always been present which is unhealthy for the nation’s unity. It creates a sense of majoritarianism and Hindi hegemony among the people and the languages as well as the voices of the minorities are sidelined.(3) The wave of saffronisation can now be witnessed invading one of the most esteemed institutions of the nation, the Delhi University. Popular for its upfront politics and open platform for the practice of freedom of speech and expression, certain activities can be indicative of colouring the politically diverse ambience of the university into saffron.
TO MOO OR NOT TO MOO?
A recent controversy that has garnered the limelight is the Hansraj Cow Research Centre case. The college has been scrutinised for the establishment of a “gaushala” in the guise of a research centre. The students have protested massively against the move. There were claims that the land on which the project will be carried out was originally for the Women's Hostel. The Principal of the college refuted the allegation stating that only one cow would be inhabited for research purposes.
Hansraj is a DAV Trust college and is thus known for upfront pro-Hindu activities such as conducting rituals on the premises. DAV trust or D.A.V. College Managing Committee is a non-governmental educational organisation which covers in its ambit many schools, colleges and universities. Other institutions funded by the DAV trust includes, PG DAV college of DU, Hansraj College, DAV college in Chandigarh, etc. The objective of the establishment is to impart education and develop individuals who are moral, intellectual, concerned about the society, emotionally stable, physically well-developed and culturally accomplished. The goal of the organisation is to stimulate a scientific temper by working against superstitions and out-dated customs. It also aims at providing a wide range of holistic education by homogenising the western knowledge while remaining anchored to the Indian cultural moorings. Started with the noble cause the foundation now just acts as the flag bearer of saffronisation. The institution is popular for teaching students vedas and encouraging them to perform yagyas. Reinforcing the ideals and principles of Hinduism among the students and obviating a secular approach of teaching. Recently, one of the many branches of the academy made headlines for the wording of a question in the English exam that was called out for propaganda. Mentioning the January 26 violence the question asked students to write a letter to the Editor, condemning the 'terrible, violent acts of miscreants who fail to realise that country comes before personal needs and gains'. Also stating that "destroying public property, disgracing the national flag and attacking police personnel, are few of the various illegal offences committed that can never be justified for any reason whatsoever.” (4). Such cases of propagandist measures are not uncommon to the DAV schools and colleges.
A cow is an important symbol of Hinduism and is venerated by the deities. However, a step taken to promote the holiness of cows in the educational sphere poses a threat to the secular outlook of the University as a whole. The step has been praised and supported by the members of the ABVP unit of the college. Many have come to stand against the decision as well. With such incidents aligning a clear trend of ideologies in a noteworthy college which ideally should inculcate diversity and secularism, one must wonder what incentivizes Hansraj to maintain such activities?
It is not unknown that the central government has worked excessively for the betterment of the cows in the nation. But the incorporation of this holy duty in the college is perilous to the university, its academic environment and even to the nation. The most bothersome part of the entire incident is the sheer disinterest of the college towards the creation of a women's hostel on the premises is a sign of misaligned priorities. The principal has claimed the land for the research centre has nothing to do with the hostel. The college aims to provide a better space for the construction of the hostel. However, since the decision regarding the hostel couldn't reach a consensus in 2016, the idea of a better and bigger space for women seems like a mirage. The horror in this dispute is the fact that the decision for the research centre was effortlessly passed whereas the verdict of the hostel which is an urgent necessity for the female students is sidelined with much ease. The absence of the residents has had a profound impact on the ratio of males and females in the college.
THE CASTE CONUNDRUM
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Yet, another move that raises eyebrows is the university’s decision of restructuring the syllabus by replacing stories of prominent Dalit writers. The “restructuring” of the syllabus is in actuality an act of vandalism, and comes as a surprise to both the teachers as well as the students. Mahashweta Devi’s story “Draupadi”, for instance, is a phenomenal piece of literature that imparts a fresh perspective to the readers about the classics and helps them develop a nuanced sense of the classics. It is a highly celebrated story that has been a part of the English syllabus for a long time. The removal of the story because it described rape is frustrating, and defeats the very purpose of including texts which expose and discuss such a patriarchal set-up from various viewpoints. The focus of the university should be on creating a safe space for women to flourish instead of removing writings that describe crimes against women.
The changes in the syllabus are crucial for maintaining the novelty of the course yet the removal of Dalit writers and incorporation of the upper caste authors manifests Hindutva fascism and promotes a sense of elitism among the students. It is crucial to understand that such actions may seem harmless but can be the seeds for disharmony and oppression in the longer run. The presence of Dalit literature in the syllabus helps the students, who might be untouched and unaware of the years of oppression faced by the marginalized section of the society, understand and empathize with the struggles and pain suffered by the community.
Works of Dalits need to be taught to the students because the college curriculum is a platform for the community to tell their tales and be acknowledged. Removal of these topics can also cause alienation of the community from the majority of the population and result in the creation of stereotypes and prejudices. Minority communities face backlash and are historically and structurally disenfranchised from entering university spheres. Often Dalit students have been subjected to violence and biased treatment just because of their identity. In light of such instances, such changes in syllabus pose a bigger threat of excluding an already subjugated community from the realms of higher education.
A FUNERARY PYRE FOR SECULARISM
Image credits- ourworld.co Laxmi Bai college aspires to set up a holistic village site called “Gurukul”, the project would also incorporate a fully functional “Yagya shala” wherein the rituals will be carried out on campus. For the record, Hansraj is one of the colleges that already has an active yagyashala.
A vivid move toward a communal environment, the Yagya shala acts as a funerary pyre to the spirit of secularism. The college has claimed that the Muslim students are enthusiastically participating and chanting Bhagavad Gita. India is the land of diversity, a singular religion cannot provide a holistic understanding of the varied culture the country has. A true attempt to the introduction of diversity would have included knowledge about Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, and other religions that Indians follow. Spaces for the Muslim students to carry out namaz, meditation rooms, etc would have resulted in a beautiful and wholesome understanding of various religions. However, the promotion of Hinduism and disregarding others is saffronizing the minds and experiences of students. The college is known for practising rituals of Sanatan Dharma and chanting Bhagavad Gita. These customs are open to all the students, teachers, and staff members of the college.
THE LANGUAGE QUESTION
The dilemma of language in India is not modern, the constituent assembly grappled with the issue. The assembly saw divergent opinions, heated debates and counterarguments surfaced during the meetings. It was during these meetings when R. V. Dhulekar famously demanded Hindi to be made the national language of the nation and quoted, “I say it (Hindi) is the official language and it is the national language. You may demur to it. You may belong to another nation but I belong to Indian nation, the Hindi Nation, the Hindu Nation, the Hindustani Nation. I do not know why you say it is not the National Language.” (5) Dhulekar’s strong appeal was firmly objected to by Shrimati G. Durgabai from Madras explained her worries: “ Mr President, the question of national language for India which was an almost agreed proposition until recently has suddenly become a highly controversial issue. Whether rightly or wrongly, the people of non-Hindi -speaking areas have been made to feel that this fight, or this attitude on behalf of the Hindi -speaking areas, is a fight for effectively preventing the natural influence of other powerful languages of India on the composite culture of this nation.” She had accepted Hindustani as the language of the people, but now that language was being transformed, words from Urdu and other regional languages were being removed. Any move that eroded the inclusive and composite character of Hindustani, she felt, was bound to create anxieties and fears amongst different language groups. (6)
After much deliberation, the consensus was reached that the newly independent nation would have two official languages, namely, English and Hindi. India would not have any national language. Over time, various education policies were created to strengthen the unity and promote diversity among the young minds of nations via the three-language policy. First introduced during the Indira Gandhi government, the policy discussed that every student in India will learn three languages. The Hindi- speaking states would have Hindi English and one modern Indian language in their courses whereas the non-Hindi speaking states would have Hindi, English, and anyone Indian language. As the years went by, the policy proved to be a failure and was manipulated by a majority of states and schools by teaching the students a foreign language or a language that was seen as a more beneficial prospect.
The story of the language policy is crucial in understanding the manipulation of DU in creating a sense of superiority among the Hindi-speaking students. A compulsory Hindu test is present in DU for the students who have not studied Hindi post-class VIII. This is a highly problematic test because it portrays the superiority of one language over others. In other words, students who have not studied Hindi are forced to appear for the test so that everyone knows basic Hindi. However, there is no need for a Hindi-speaking student to know the basics of a regional or state language. It is their personal choice whether or not they wish to study it. India does not have a national language. Such measures to impose a language onto students is unfair. If it is expected of a student from Southern India to be able to communicate in Hindi, it should be expected of a Hindi-speaking student to be aware of at least one regional language of India. It is an act of discrimination toward the minority and cannot yield good results in the future. Back in 2016, the university faced a backlash for the same from the North-eastern students and yet little has been done about it. For a student who is new to the university and the metropolis, it becomes a massive task to undertake a test for a language that they haven't ever studied or have not practised in a long time. The nation has nurtured diverse cultures for ages, one cannot highlight the essence of this country in one language, culture, or religion. It is disrespectful to the very nation when we try to saffronize in the name of Indianisation. Alteration in education and attempts to create a sense of superiority of a culture or community over others would lead to disharmony and even civil war. These actions might be seen as harmless and unimportant on the face of it but when looked at carefully can be seen as a source of religious chauvinism among the youth. Being one of the most prestigious institutions in the country and a dream of many students all across the nation, the university shoulders the great responsibility of imparting quality and unbiased education to the students. Communal acts not only tarnish the name of DU but also ruin a secular atmosphere.
An undergraduate Political Science student pursuing Bachelor's of Arts at Delhi University, Charvee is an enthusiastic writer intrigued by the politics of India. She can be found reading fiction books or deliberating about social issues. She is a clumsy ambivert with a zeal to create a mark in the bustling world.